habillage
Souterrains, le monde creusé par l'homme. Jérôme et Laurent Triolet. Carrières souterraines, champignonnières, villes souterraines, souterrains-refuges, habitats troglodytiques, tunelles de guerre, souterrains cultuels, catacombes.

Publications in French language (1986-2009)


La mine des Sarrasins, à Bramans (en collaboration avec Jean-Michel Machefert), Subterranea n°60, pp.129-132, 1986.


La grotte naturelle aménagée de la Basse-Chevrière (en collaboration avec Jean-Michel Machefert), Subterranea n°61, pp.21-24, 1987.
 

Les systèmes de défense dans les souterrains-refuges tourangeaux (en collaboration avec Jean-Michel Machefert), Bulletin de la Société Archéologique de Touraine, Tome XLI, pp.773-782, 1987.

Download the publication
 

Le rôle des silos dans les souterrains-refuges tourangeaux (en collaboration avec Jean-Michel Machefert), Subterranea n°65, pp.22-25, 1988.
 

Les restes d'un souterrain aménagé, à la Fosse-Rouge, Subterranea n°70, pp.64-69, 1989.
 

Le souterrain-refuge de la Bourie, un souterrain inédit du Chinonais, Subterranea n°72, pp.147-155, 1989.
 

Le souterrain du château de Betz , Subterranea n°74, pp.43-50, 1990.
 

Complément à l'étude du souterrain-refuge de Balâtre, Loir-et-Cher, Subterranea n°76, pp.141-146, 1990.
 

Premiers commentaires sur le souterrain de l'église du Pin, Bulletin municipal de la commune du Pin, pp.5-6, 1990.
 

Le souterrain aménagé du Chillou,  Subterranea n°80, pp.119-125, 1991.
 

La Bove de Neuville-sur-Touques (Orne), partie I (en collaboration avec Laurent Dujardin), Subterranea n°81, pp.3-13, 1992.
 

La Bove de Neuville-sur-Touques (Orne), partie II (en collaboration avec Laurent Dujardin), Subterranea n°82, pp.43-51, 1992.
 

Aménagements défensifs des souterrains-refuges de Touraine, in Archéologie du monde souterrain sous la direction de Stéphane Boutin, pp.49-54, éditions Bordessoules, 1993.
 

Le souterrain de Ruabourg (Loir-et-Cher), Subterranea n°88, pp.143-147, 1993.
 

Les souterrains-refuges; de France en Cappadoce, une même logique, in Patrimoine souterrain creusé, actes du Symposium international de Saumur sous le patronage de l'UNESCO, pp.40-49, 1993.

Abstract

A lot of subterranean refuges lie hidden in the west France. These man-made subterraneans were designed, during the medieval war periods, for the protection and the survival of a group of humans, with domestic animals and provisions. In Cappadoce (Turkey), "underground cities" are gigantic subterranean refuges.
In France and in Cappadoce, the subterranean networks differ from one another in dimensions and in functioning. But they answer to the same requirement and yield to the same logic: it's the logic of the subterranean refuge.

 

Observations sur le développement et les moeurs troglophiles de Pelodytes punctatus (Amphibien anoure, Pélobatide) (en collaboration avec Hervé Thomas), Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux n°22(4), pp.199-205, 1994.
Abstract
The authors confirm in this work the definitely troglophilic behaviour of Pelodytes punctatus. This toad has been found in abundance in several  underground shelters in Tarn (81). Before, the authors report some observations concerning the life cycle of this species, starting from two populations attended on two temporary phreatic ponds on  the « grey dune » at the Verdon-sur-Mer (33).

 

Nouvelles découvertes de souterrains aménagés dans la région de Bressuire, Bulletin de la Société Historique et Scientifique des Deux-Sèvres, Actes du congrès de Bressuire (1993), 3ème série - Tome II - 2ème semestre, pp.307-326, 1994.

 

Les cités souterraines de Cappadoce, L'Archéologue - Archéologie nouvelle n°11, pp.41-44, 1995.
 

La Loire troglodytique, La Loire et ses terroirs n°17, pp.24-33, 1995.
 

Les souterrains-refuges, Le Mois Scientifique Bordelais n°163, pp.1&4, 1995.
 

Les souterrains-refuges du Levant espagnol, L'Archéologue - Archéologie nouvelle n°19, pp.47-49, 1996.
 

Deux conceptions du grand souterrain-refuge villageois: Hiermont (Picardie - France) et Sivasa (Cappadoce - Turquie), Subterranea n°97, pp.2-10, 1996.                                         Download the publication

 

La chapelle Saint-Amador (Sougé - 41), un exemple unique de circumambulation souterraine autour d'une chapelle troglodytique, Subterranea n°98, pp.54-60, 1996.
 

Etude d'un souterrain espagnol et apport de l'entomologie, cluzeau de falaise de Bancal Redo, Alfafara, province d'Alicante (en collaboration avec Jean-Bernard Huchet), Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux n°24(3), pp.111-129, 1996.

Abstract

In the spanish Levant, there is a surprising concentration of a singular type of souterrains-refuges, the "cluzeaux de falaise". This new study of the site of "Bancal Redo" reveal an ensemble which can protect a small community and its subsistence means. To understand better the function of some cavities, we do an entomologic study in a sample taked in a room. The insect’s analysis don't destroy the first hypothesis using architectural structures.

Resumen

En el Levante espanol, hay una importante concentracion de "subterraneos-refugios" de un tipo particular, los "cluzeaux de falaise". Este estudio inedito se interessa por un conjunto que puede acojer temporalmente un pequeno grupo de personas con su medio de subsistancia. Para un mejor entendido de la funcion de algunas cavidades, fue realizado un estudio entomologico utilizando una muestra de sedimentos tomados en una salla. La analiza de estos restos de insectos no contradice la primera hipotesis resultando del estudio arquitectural.
 

Le souterrain-refuge de La Roche (Sarthe), Subterranea n°99, pp.98-102, 1996.
 

Les Covetes dels Moros, un cluzeau de falaise communautaire du Levant espagnol, Bulletin de la Société Historique et Archéologique du Périgord, tome CXXIV, pp.63-89, 1997.
 

Les cluzeaux de falaise du Levant espagnol, Subterranea, Actes du XIXème congrès de la SFES (1996), pp.67-78, 1997.                                                                                                           Download the publication
 

Le phénomène souterrain annulaire dans le Blésois - Un ouvrage majeur : le souterrain annulaire de l'église de Vineuil (Loir-et-Cher), Subterranea, Actes du XXème congrès de la SFES (1997), pp.67-72, 1998.
 

Le souterrain aménagé du Cluzeau à Lathus-Saint-Rémy, Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de l’Ouest et des Musées de Poitiers, 5e série – tome XII, pp. 59-72, 1er trimestre 1998.

 

Les souterrains de Vendée, Loire-Océan Magazine n°4, pp.34-39, 1999.
 

Le souterrain-refuge de l'Ecusseau (86), Subterranea n°111, pp.66-72, 1999.

Abstract
The souterrain of l'Ecusseau was discovered at the beginning of the nineties. He was before unpublished. He is located in the Châtelleraudais. He has 6 main rooms, 2 small rooms for storage, 1 silo, construction shafts, and 2 gullets. These arrangements and the analyse of the global organization of the underground network lead us to class this structure as a refuge. On the base of the comparison with other souterrains-refuges in the same geographic aera, the XIIIth or the XIVth century are proposed as possible dates of hollowing.

 

Le phénomène des souterrains-refuges en Touraine ; un ouvrage inédit : le souterrain des Goupillères, Bulletin de la Société Archéologique de Touraine, Tome XLV, pp.829-849, 1999.

Download the publication
 

Les souterrains-refuges, demeures de l'Anjou, Anjou Magazine n°48, pp.18-26, 2000.
 

Le souterrain-refuge de la Lézilière  (86), Subterranea n°115, pp.69-75, 2000.

Abstract
The souterrain of la Lézilière was discovered at the beginning of the nineties. He was before unpublished. He is located in the Châtelleraudais. He has 4 main rooms, 4 big silos, construction shafts, 2 gullets and 2 loopholes. These arrangements and the analyse of the global organization of the underground network lead us to class this structure as a refuge. In addition, reshaping evidences lead us to consider that the defence of the refuge, initially passive, was improved introducing an active defence for a second period of use. On the base of these elements supported by comparisons with other souterrains-refuges in the same geographic aera, the XIIIth or the XIVth century are proposed as possible dates of hollowing and first period of use. The XVth or the XVIth centuries are also proposed as dates of the second period of use, after wide modifications of the underground network.

 L’art des carrières, La Loire et ses terroirs n°41/42, pp.38-43, 1/2002.
 

Le troglodytisme en Ethiopie (en collaboration avec H. Klose et L. Stevens), Subterranea, Actes du XXIIème congrès de la SFES (1999), pp. 49-79, 2002.

Abstract
This paper is the opportunity to present visits and remarks resulting from a trip in Abyssinia and Tigray and from a long stay in this country that posses a very rich troglodytic heritage. We will first recall shortly the history of the Christianity in this area . Next the different kind of rock-hewn churches will be presented with the help of several examples.  A section will concentrate on the site of Lalibela, the «Black Jerusalem », with its monuments that have been added to the world heritage list of UNESCO. The interesting case of Adadi Maryam will next be developed. To pursue, the rock grave (pre-christian) of Axum will be presented before concluding on the specific use of caves in the area and on general remarks the we have learned from this experience.

 

Les graffiti dans les souterrains et les carrières souterraines du Val-de-Loire, Actes des "Premières Rencontres Graffiti anciens" à Loches en Touraine (2001), pp. 89-100, ASPAG, 2002.
 

Troglodytes du Val-de-Loire, 303 Arts, Recherches et Créations n° 75, pp. 110-115, 4ème trimestre 2002.
 

Quelques commentaires sur le souterrain annulaire du Chézeau, Subterranea n°125, pp. 12-14, 2003.
Abstract
After the discovery of the Chézeau’s souterrain in 2000, these two authors have also studied this underground structure that has been published in the book « Souterrains et croyances ». In this paper, they present some characteristics of this souterrain and show the place that it has in the framework of ring souterrains in France. They conclude on an overview of the various interpretations that have been developed about ring souterrains.

 

Des souterrains-refuges de l’ouest de la France datés des XVe-XVIe siècles grâce à leurs tuyaux d’aération, Subterranea n°132, pp. 100-107, 2004.


Souterrain annulaire de l’église du Pin (Deux-Sèvres). Une datation au carbone 14 pour le comblement de l’accès situé sous la nef, Subterranea n°132, pp. 108-114, 2004.


Les souterrains-refuges en France, Dossiers d’Archéologie n°301, pp. 6-11, mars 2005.


Cappadoce, les villes souterraines, Dossiers d’Archéologie n°301, pp. 68-71, mars 2005.


Le souterrain-refuge de l’église de Lentillac, Sousceyrac d'hier à aujourd'hui n°20, pp. 29-33, 2005.


Le souterrain de la Daunière en Vendée - Une étonnante ressemblance avec les souterrains du Ségala, Subterrane'Actes du XXVIème congrès de la SFES (2003), pp. 23-28, 2005.               Download the publication


Un souterrain annulaire transformé en souterrain-refuge, la Blanchonnière, Subterranea n°147, pp. 68-76, 2008.

Abstract

The souterrain of la Blanchonnière has been discovered in November, 2007. It was until then unpublished. Located in the plain of Beauce, few kilometers north from Blois, it is 50 meters long and includes 2 big silos for grain, one hoisting shaft, 4 loopholes (trous de visée). It can be classified among the 2 categories of undergrounds : the underground refuges (souterrains-refuges) and the ring-shaped undergrounds (souterrains annulaires). It was probably at first a ring-shaped underground and later (15th-16th century) it was transformed into a underground refuge with active defence.

 

 


 

Publications in French language (2010- )


Etude du souterrain de la Robinetrie à Nanteuil-en-Vallée (16), site  n° 16 242 0031, Rapport à l’attention du SRA Poitou-Charentes, 15 p., novembre 2010.


Nanteuil-en-Vallée, Souterrain aménagé de la Robinetrie, Bilan Scientifique de la Région Poitou-Charentes 2010 (DRAC Poitou-Charentes), p. 53, 2011.

 

Le souterrain de la Roche-Clermault et ses graffiti, Subterranea n°159, pp. 88-105, 2011.

 

Souterrains aménagés, souterrains-refuges, souterrains annulaires… Un panorama de la question en région Centre, Comptes rendus du SARC Détection, caractérisation et fouille des structures souterraines médiévales (DRAC Centre – SRA), pp. 9-14, Orléans, 2013. Available at http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/Regions/Drac-Centre                                                                                                     Download the publication

 

Les souterrains de Vendée, Subterranea n°169, pp. 2-5, 2014.                               Download the publication

 

Quand l’armée chinoise nous explique le concept de souterrain-refuge : Tunnel Warfare, Subterranea n°169, pp. 24-29, 2014.                                                                                                 Download the publication

 

Un souterrain armoricain de l’Âge du Fer : le souterrain de la Ville es Peniaux à Cancale (Ille-et-Vilaine), Subterranea n°170, pp. 16-21, 2014.
Abstract

The souterrain of la Ville es Peniaux has been discovered in 1800. It was published for the first time in 1992. Located in north-east of Brittany, south of Saint-Malo, it is about 11 meters long and includes an entrance shaft, 2 rooms connected by a small passage, and a small unfinished passage. It can be classified as an Armorican souterrain dating back to the Iron Age, and it is one of the easternmost.                       Download the publication

 

L’habitat troglodyte dans le Val de Loire, Les Études ligériennes n°25, pp 13-15, 2015. 

                                                                                                                                       Download the publication

 

La chapelle souterraine de la Québrie à Niré-le-Dolent (Loudun-Vienne), Subterranea n°173, pp. 2-13, 2015.

Abstract

Dug inside an underground quarry, the chapel of La Québrie includes, amongst others, an altar and an altarpiece cut into the rock. Dating back to 1796, the altarpiece is composed of four columns carved into the rock that surround a painted décor showing a crucifixion. In a later phase, numerous graffiti on the wall and on the painted décor show that the place was regularly frequented by the population from the beginning of the 19th century until the Second World War. In a book published in 1908, a local historian gives the name of a non-juring priest who could have hidden himself and officiated inside this clandestine chapel during the Revolution. Because of the elaborate architecture and the rich history, this chapel is an underground monument of particular interest.

 

 


 

Publications in English language


Karsı Kilise, in Cappadocia, Schede dei siti sotterranei / Records of the underground sites, a cura di / edited by Roberto Bixio, British Archaeological Reports (BAR) S2413, Oxford, pp. 127-131, 2012.

 

Kaymakli, in Cappadocia, Schede dei siti sotterranei / Records of the underground sites, a cura di / edited by Roberto Bixio, British Archaeological Reports (BAR) S2413, Oxford, pp. 138-141, 2012.

 

Underground refuges and war tunnels (France, Cappadocia, Afghanistan, Vietnam and Lebanon), Opera Ipogea (Journal of Speleology in Artificial Cavities), pp. 51-60, 1/2013.

Abstract

We have been studying underground cavities dug by man, with particular reference to underground refuges, for 25 years. Thanks to this research, the function and the organization of underground refuges in France and some other countries have been betterunderstood. Recently, a synthetic work about the use of underground cavities during war has been published in the book “La guerre souterraine” (Underground Warfare). Through this work, we are able to present two categories of underground cavities dug by man during war: underground refuges and war tunnels. For the two categories, we present in this article several examples of cavities dug in different countries and used at different times. Our purpose is to show that, despite the historical and geographic differences, all the cavities included in each of these categories present an important architectural unity. This common architecture is related to an identical function. We will also point out the existing differences between underground refuges and war tunnels.                                                                                                                    Download the publication

 

Tunnel Warfare – the Chinese concept of active underground shelters, Subterranea (Subterranea Britannica Magazine) n°35, pp.75-77, April 2014.                                                          Download the publication

 
 


 

Publications in German language


Unterirdische Städte in Kappadozien, Der Erdstall (Hefte des Arbeitskreises für Erdstallforschung) n°20, pp.85-91, 1994.

 

Das ringförmige Souterrain unter der Kirche von Le Pin / Westfrankreich, eine wichtige Stätte zum Verständnis des Phänomens der französischen ringförmigen Souterrains (translated by Hans Klose), Der Erdstall (Hefte des Arbeitskreises für Erdstallforschung) n°36, pp.75-90, 2010.

 

 


 

 

 © Jerôme et Laurent TRIOLET 2017 - All rights reserved

 Copyright Information ©